Replacement Theology at theological college was taught as Super-succession-ism that Christ at the cross "superceded" the Old Covenant and at that point the Chosen People played no further part in the human processes of Salvation and lost their special place within the economy of God.
Yet, the promises of God to His ancient people are being fulfilled, even to the alarm of sceptics. We can cite the 1948 restoration of the Nation of Israel. We can cite deserts being turned into rich food producing pastures: 80% of Europe's oranges come from Israel. (ref: Bridges for Peace http://www.bridgesforpeace.com/ ).
Israel is the 100th smallest country, with less than 1/1000th of the world's population. It has a tradition of a highly educated population, and encourages its citizens in pursuing all modern scientific, medical, technological and agricultural innovations.
This possibly has its roots in the founders of the modern State, who were often the highly educated refugees from war-torn Europe, who have strong ties to high-level scientific researchers who fled to America during and after World War II. This love of education, however, is not new to the Jewish culture and builds on centuries of an encouragement of scholarly pursuits.
The heart of the theological debate is whether the Jewish people ceased as God's Covenant people at the Cross.
It is noteworthy that the very early church was ambivalent. The "Christ followers" never saw themselves outside of Judaism. The disciples worshipped in the Jerusalem temple and rural synagogues. Here "Christ followers" received Roman Imperial protection as Judaism was recognized as a legitimate Religion.
As the Christian movement in the years after Jesus' resurrection expanded exponentially, with their incessant claim that Jesus is Messiah, it came to include non-Jews (the Gentiles) as well, and a separation from the traditional Jewish religious practices was inevitable.
The new Christianity also started to disrupt the economic activities in some cities, as the Acts of the Apostles illustrate (Acts chapter 23 verses 19 f). Christianity was challenging both the ancient Roman religions and Judaism with its 'radical' new ideas.
Early church fathers
Inevitably, there was conflict with everyone in authority, and persecution of Christians followed. The early Church Fathers document this as the start of the recognition of Christians as being different from any of the previous religions.
Justin Martyr AD160 wrote of the Jews "The Scriptures are not yours, but ours". The Cappadocian Fathers (Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory of Nazianzus) were of one mind, strongly emphasising the Trinity, and castigating the Jews who rejected this Three in One God. Irenaeus Bishop of Lyons 177AD wrote "Jews are disinherited from the grace of God".
Tertullian, a great theologian on the deity of Christ 160-230AD, wrote his famous treatise "Against the Jews" saying that God had rejected the Jews in favour of the Christians. Augustine who attempted the first major systemisation of Christian theological thought, likewise rejected the Jews and stated that Christians were the inheritors of God's favour.
This rejection was primarily based on Matthew 27 verse 25 that Jesus' blood would be upon the Jews and their children. This is the basis upon which anti-Semitism is built. The Jews were deemed 'Christ killers'.
The Reformation produced the greatest hater of Jews to the C20th, Martin Luther. His writings against the Jews are couched in vile language. Academics who study the philosophy leading up to the Holocaust acknowledge that Luther's impact on German thought about Jews was probably the well-spring of Nazi ideology.
Christian instruction - brought down through the centuries to us and as taught in theological colleges / seminaries - is that the Covenant with the Hebrews (the Jews) passed from Judaism to Christianity at "Calvary". This is Replacement Theology. This affects every attitude we have toward Jews and the anti-Semitism witnessed over centuries.
The question must be asked, What of God's heart for His people? A large number of theological scholars and bible lovers affirm that there remains a place in God's heart for the Jews, as depicted in both Old Testament and New Testament passages.
The debate proceeds from the Old Testament resting upon the nature of God and His promises. Apostle Paul's writes: Romans chapter 11 verse 17 says Christians are "grafted in", Ephesians chapter 2 verse 13 Christians are "brought near" and Romans chapter 15 verse 27 Christians are "partakers".
These don't reflect a usurping of the Covenant or indeed a replacement at all. Christ followers are "joined into" what God had been doing in Israel to bring redemption to the world.
Moreover, this view holds that as in Romans chapter 11 verse 29 that God did not break his Covenant promises with Israel. Should this theological view "hold weight", then God has not dispensed with his chosen people, and the Jews retain a specific place in the economy of God.
In part 2 of this series (tomorrow), I will continue this discussion - setting a challenge for the reader.
Dr Mark Tronson is a Baptist minister (retired) who served as the Australian cricket team chaplain for 17 years (2000 ret) and established Life After Cricket in 2001. He was recognised by the Olympic Ministry Medal in 2009 presented by Carl Lewis Olympian of the Century. He mentors young writers and has written 24 books, and enjoys writing. He is married to Delma, with four adult children and grand-children. Dr Tronson writes a daily article for Christian Today Australia (since 2008) and in November 2016 established Christian Today New Zealand. Dr Mark Tronson’s Press Service International in 2019 was awarded the Australasian Religious Press Association’s premier award, The Gutenberg.
Mark Tronson's archive of articles can be viewed at